Published Research Papers on Pancreatic Cancer

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  • Yu-Jie Zhou

    Purification of porcine pancreatic lipase by aqueous two-phase systems of polyethylene glycol and potassium phosphate

    “An aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) was applied for the purification of porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL) from crude PPL using polyethylene glycol (PEG) and potassium phosphate. Phase diagrams for polyethylene glycol (PEG) and potassium phosphate dibasic were determined at room temperature to find an operating region to first form the ATPS. The PPL was preferentially partitioned into the PEG-rich phase in systems with molecular weights of 1000 and 1500 and concentrated in the phosphate-rich phase in systems with PEG of 4000. Moreover, instead of tie line length (TLL), we used a stability ratio without NaCl in the system, and we first applied fluorescence spectroscopy for the protein conformational analysis of the ATPS. The molecular weight of the purified lipase was determined to be approximately 52kDa by SDS-PAGE. The enzyme was efficiently purified in PEG 1500/potassium phosphate (17/13, %) at a pH of 7.0 at 4°C. This system obtained an enzyme partition coefficient of 12.7, an extraction efficiency of 94.7% and a purification factor of approximately 4. These results demonstrate that the aqueous two-phase system is a highly efficient method for PPL purification.”

    January 1970
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  • Aida Karray

    Kinetic properties of pancreatic and intestinal sPLA2 from chicken and mammals using the monomolecular film technique

    “The interfacial kinetic and binding data for the pancreatic and intestinal sPLA2 from bird and mammals show that these enzymes have dramatically different ability to bind and hydrolyse phospholipids. The main conclusions from our experimental data indicate that phosphatidylcholine monolayers (PC), in contrast to phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylglycerol (PG), were resistant to the hydrolysis by human intestinal sPLA2. Conversely, chicken intestinal sPLA2 was found to be able to hydrolyse all the phospholipids tested, including PC. The experiments show also that the interfacial penetrating ability of chicken sPLA2 (from intestine and pancreas) was higher than their mammalian’s orthologs. This observation is confirmed by the activity of pancreatic chicken PLA2 measured on PC film showing that the interfacial pressure window that permits sPLA2 activity was very large, between 5 and 20dynescm⁻¹, compared with the porcine pancreatic sPLA2-IB which was inactive at pressure above 15dynescm⁻¹. In trying to establish a structure–function relationship, we examined the surface electrostatic potentials of the various sPLA2 from chicken and mammals. We reported in this study that the binding, orientation and persistence of sPLA2 at the lipid–water interface is probably governed by the electrostatic and hydrophobic forces operative at this surface. These variations argue strongly that these enzymes are not isoforms and that they are expected to have functions other than the release of lipid mediators for the biosynthesis of the eicosanoids.”

    January 1970
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  • Yelena Vachutinsky

    Antiangiogenic gene therapy of experimental pancreatic tumor by sFlt-1 plasmid DNA carried by RGD-modified crosslinked polyplex micelles

    “Disulfide crosslinked polyplex micelles with RGD peptides were formed through ion complexation of thiolated c(RGDfK)-poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(l-lysine) (c(RGDfK)-PEG-P(Lys-SH)) and plasmid DNA encoding sFlt-1 and tested for their therapeutic effect in BxPC3 pancreatic adenocarcinoma tumor bearing mice. These micelles, systemically injected, demonstrated significant inhibition of tumor growth up to day 18, as a result of the antiangiogenic effect that was confirmed by vascular density measurements. Significant therapeutic activity of the 15% crosslinked micelle (c(RGDfK)-PEG-P(Lys-SH15)) was achieved by combined effect of increased tumor accumulation, interaction with endothelial cells and enhanced intracellular uptake through receptor-mediated endocytosis. These results suggest that RGD targeted crosslinked polyplex micelles can be effective plasmid DNA carriers for antiangiogenic gene therapy.”

    January 1970
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  • Natalya Rapoport

    Ultrasound-mediated tumor imaging and nanotherapy using drug loaded, block copolymer stabilized perfluorocarbon nanoemulsions

    “Perfluorocarbon nanoemulsions can deliver lipophilic therapeutic agents to solid tumors and simultaneously provide for monitoring nanocarrier biodistribution via ultrasonography and/or ¹⁹F MRI. In the first generation of block copolymer stabilized perfluorocarbon nanoemulsions, perfluoropentane (PFP) was used as the droplet forming compound. Although manifesting excellent therapeutic and ultrasound imaging properties, PFP nanoemulsions were unstable at storage, difficult to handle, and underwent hard to control phenomenon of irreversible droplet-to-bubble transition upon injection. To solve the above problems, perfluoro-15-crown-5-ether (PFCE) was used as a core forming compound in the second generation of block copolymer stabilized perfluorocarbon nanoemulsions. PFCE nanodroplets manifest both ultrasound and fluorine (¹⁹F) MR contrast properties, which allows using multimodal imaging and ¹⁹F MR spectroscopy for monitoring nanodroplet pharmacokinetics and biodistribution. In the present paper, acoustic, imaging, and therapeutic properties of unloaded and paclitaxel (PTX) loaded PFCE nanoemulsions are reported. As manifested by the ¹⁹F MR spectroscopy, PFCE nanodroplets are long circulating, with about 50% of the injected dose remaining in circulation 2h after the systemic injection. Sonication with 1-MHz therapeutic ultrasound triggered reversible droplet-to-bubble transition in PFCE nanoemulsions. Microbubbles formed by acoustic vaporization of nanodroplets underwent stable cavitation. The nanodroplet size (200nm to 350nm depending on a type of the shell and conditions of emulsification) as well as long residence in circulation favored their passive accumulation in tumor tissue that was confirmed by ultrasonography. In the breast and pancreatic cancer animal models, ultrasound-mediated therapy with paclitaxel-loaded PFCE nanoemulsions showed excellent therapeutic properties characterized by tumor regression and suppression of metastasis. Anticipated mechanisms of the observed effects are discussed.”

    January 1970
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  • Cha-Eun Kim

    In vivo antitumor effect of cromolyn in PEGylated liposomes for pancreatic cancer

    “A PEGylated liposomal formulation of cromolyn, composed of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC), distearoylphosphatidylcholine (DSPC) and 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-ethanolamine-N-[methoxy(polyethyleneglycol)-2000] (DSPE-mPEG2000), has been developed with the purpose of improving the antitumor activity of cromolyn for human pancreatic adenocarcinoma. In stability study, the amount of proteins adsorbed onto the PEGylated liposomes encapsulating cromolyn was 4.5-fold lower than the non-PEGylated liposome. In vitro study showed that the cromolyn in PEGylated liposome exhibited better anti-proliferative effect in BxPC-3 cells than in Panc-1 cells, which indicates higher level of endogenous S100P protein in BxPC-3 cells than in Panc-1 cells as a target protein for this drug. Moreover, the combination of cromolyn with gemcitabine in PEGylated liposomes demonstrated the strongest cytotoxicity to BxPC-3 pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and the highest anti-tumor activity against the BxPC-3 tumor bearing nude mice in vivo. Thus, this PEGylated liposomal formulation of cromolyn is expected to provide a novel approach to the treatment of pancreatic cancer in the future.”

    January 1970
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  • Katherine S. Blevins

    EphA2 targeting peptide tethered bioreducible poly(cystamine bisacrylamide–diamino hexane) for the delivery of therapeutic pCMV-RAE-1γ to pancreatic islets

    “The pathogenesis of type-1 diabetes is complicated, and a clear, single mechanism has yet to be identified. Reports have indicated that the activating receptor NKG2D plays an important role in the development of disease. Exploiting a natural phenomenon observed in tumors, plasmid DNA encoding for a soluble ligand to NKG2D (sRAE-1γ) was isolated and engineered into a plasmid expression system. A polymeric gene delivery system was developed to deliver the soluble RAE-1 plasmid locally to the pancreatic islets for the prevention of type-1 diabetes. The bioreducible cationic polymer poly(cystamine bisacrylamide–diamino hexane) (p(CBA-DAH)) was modified with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and the targeting peptide CHVLWSTRC, known to target the EphA2 and EphA4 receptors. The PEG serves to improve stability and tissue selectivity, while the peptide will target EphA2 and A4, overexpressed in the pancreatic microvasculature. The targeting polymer Eph-PEG-p(CBA-DAH) shows selective uptake by the target cell line, indicative of the targeting properties that will be seen in systemic administration. Using the delivery system, the therapeutic plasmid can be delivered to the pancreas, reduce interactions between the beta-cells and infiltrating NKG2D positive lymphocytes, and effectively protect beta-cells from autoimmune destruction and prevent type 1 diabetes.”

    January 1970
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  • Jee-Heon Jeong

    Functional enhancement of beta cells in transplanted pancreatic islets by secretion signal peptide-linked exendin-4 gene transduction

    “This study assessed whether the newly designed exendin-4 (Ex-4) gene with highly releasable characteristics could enhance the beta cell function, thereby attenuating the essential islet mass required to cure diabetes. We constructed a lentivirus system encoding for a highly releasable secretion signal peptide, the peptide linked Ex-4 (SP-Ex-4) gene. After the transduction of lentivirus encoding for SP-Ex-4 (LV-SP-Ex-4) gene into the islets, the therapeutic effects of Ex-4 secreted were evaluated by conducting glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and cytokine- or hypoxia-induced apoptosis. Additionally, the effect of reduced islet numbers for transplantation was evaluated via in vivo models. The transduction of LV-SP-Ex-4 gene did not affect the viability of islets. In diabetic animal models, 50 islets expressing Ex-4 were transplanted to cure the diabetic nude mice, whereas at least 150 untransduced islets had to be transplanted to cure the diabetic nude mice. When the transduced islets were transplanted into diabetic immunocompetent mice, the survival rate of the mice was 18.0±4.9days; however, when the untransduced islets were transplanted, they were rejected within 10.0±0.6days. Therefore, the highly releasable Ex-4 could enhance the beta cell function with slightly enhanced viability of transplanted islets, presenting as a potential technology for overcoming islet shortage.”

    January 1970
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  • Alberto Gabizon

    Therapeutic efficacy of a lipid-based prodrug of mitomycin C in pegylated liposomes: Studies with human gastro-entero-pancreatic ectopic tumor models

    “BACKGROUND: A mitomycin-C lipid-based prodrug (MLP) formulated in pegylated liposomes (PL-MLP) was previously reported to have significant antitumor activity and reduced toxicity in mouse tumor models (Clin Cancer Res 12:1913–20, 2006). MLP is activated by thiolysis releasing mitomycin-C (MMC) which rapidly dissociates from liposomes. The purpose of this study was to examine the plasma stability, pharmacokinetics, and antitumor activity of PL-MLP in mouse models of human gastroentero-pancreatic tumors. METHODS: MLP was incorporated with almost 100% efficiency in pegylated liposomes composed of hydrogenated phosphatidylcholine, with or without cholesterol (Chol). Mean vesicle size was 45–65nm for liposome preparations downsized by homogenization, and 80–100nm when downsized by extrusion, the latter displaying narrower polydispersity. MLP to phospholipid mole ratio was 5% (~20μg MMC-equivalents/μmol). Therapeutic studies were carried out in the N87 gastric carcinoma (Ca), HCT15 colon Ca, and Panc-1 pancreatic Ca models implanted s.c. in CD1 nude mice. Treatment was administered i.v. in mice with established tumors. RESULTS: PL-MLP was very stable when incubated in plasma, and whole blood with a maximum of 5% release and activation to free MMC after 24h. In the presence of a strong reducing agent (dithiotreitol), MLP was almost entirely activated to free MMC. Pharmacokinetic studies revealed major differences in plasma clearance between free MMC and PL-MLP. The longest half-lives were observed for extruded and Chol-containing preparations. Using a liposome radiolabel, it was found that the plasma levels of liposomes and prodrug were nearly superimposable confirming the absence of drug leakage in circulation. In vivo prodrug activation was significantly increased by co-injection of a large dose of a biocompatible reducing agent, N-acetylcysteine. PL-MLP was significantly more effective in delaying tumor growth and resulted in more tumor regressions than irinotecan in the N87 and HCT15 models, and than gemcitabine in the Panc-1 model. PL-MLP was ~3-fold less toxic than free MMC at MMC-equivalent doses, and displayed mild myelosuppression at therapeutic doses. CONCLUSIONS: Delivery of MLP in pegylated liposomes is more effective than conventional chemotherapy in the treatment of gastroentero-pancreatic ectopic tumor models, and may represent an effective tool for treatment of these malignancies in the clinical setting with improved safety over free MMC. Reducing agents offer a tool for controlling in vivo prodrug release.”

    January 1970
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  • Gang Niu

    Molecular targeting of CEACAM6 using antibody probes of different sizes

    “Carcinocinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 6 (CEACAM6) is overexpressed in a number of human malignancies, especially in pancreatic cancer. It has been demonstrated that CEACAM6 is a potential target for monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapy with a safe therapeutic index. Here, we labeled three anti-CEACAM6 antibodies of different sizes, including a single-domain antibody 2A3 (16kDa), a heavy chain antibody 2A3-mFc (80kDa) and a full length antibody 9A6 (150kDa), with ⁶⁴Cu to image CEACAM6 expression in a xenografted pancreatic tumor model. For positron emission tomography (PET) imaging, the tumor mice were intravenously injected with ⁶⁴Cu-DOTA-antibodies and static scans were obtained at 5min, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 24h post-injection (p.i.). All three antibodies showed strong CEACAM6 binding. Ex vivo immunostaining on tumor sections at 24h after Ab injection demonstrated specific tumor targeting of both 2A3-mFc and 9A6. ⁶⁴Cu-DOTA-2A3 showed fast BxPC3 tumor uptake and rapid whole-body clearance. At 24h p.i., the tumor uptakes were 98.2±6.12%ID/g for ⁶⁴Cu-DOTA-2A3-mFc and 57.8±3.73%ID/g for ⁶⁴Cu-DOTA-9A6, respectively. Compared with the full length antibody 9A6, the heavy chain antibody 2A3-mFc showed higher tumor uptake, lower liver uptake and shorter circulation half-life. All the data supported that the heavy chain antibody 2A3-mFc is superior to the single domain antibody and the full-length antibody with regard to tumor detection and pharmacokinetics, which has great potential to be developed for CEACAM6-targeted pancreatic cancer imaging and therapy.”

    January 1970
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  • Frederico Pittella

    Pancreatic cancer therapy by systemic administration of VEGF siRNA contained in calcium phosphate/charge-conversional polymer hybrid nanoparticles

    “Development of an efficient in vivo delivery vehicle of small interfering RNA (siRNA) is the key challenge for successful siRNA-based therapies. In this study, toward systemic delivery of siRNA to solid tumors, a smart polymer/calcium phosphate (CaP)/siRNA hybrid nanoparticle was prepared to feature biocompatibility, reversible stability and endosomal escape functionality using a pH sensitive block copolymer of poly(ethylene glycol) and charge-conversional polymer (PEG-CCP), of which anionic functional groups could be converted to cationic groups in an endosomal acidic condition for facilitated endosomal escape. Nanoparticles were confirmed to be approximately 100nm in size, narrowly dispersed and spherical. Also, the nanoparticle was highly tolerable in medium containing serum, while releasing the entrapped siRNA in a cytoplasm-mimicking ionic condition, presumably based on the equilibrium between CaP complexes and calcium ions. Further, the nanoparticle showed high gene silencing efficiency in cultured pancreatic cancer cells (BxPC3) without associated cytotoxicity. Ultimately, systemic administration of the nanoparticles carrying vascular endothelium growth factor (VEGF) siRNA led to the significant reduction in the subcutaneous BxPC3 tumor growth, well consistent with the enhanced accumulation of siRNA and the significant VEGF gene silencing (~68%) in the tumor. Thus, the hybrid nanoparticle was demonstrated to be a promising formulation toward siRNA-based cancer therapies.”

    January 1970
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  • Wan Seok Joo

    Polymeric delivery of therapeutic RAE-1 plasmid to the pancreatic islets for the prevention of type 1 diabetes

    “The activating receptor NKG2D plays an important role in the development of type-1 diabetes. Exploiting a natural phenomenon observed in tumors, plasmid DNA encoding for a soluble ligand to NKG2D (sRAE-1γ) was isolated and engineered into a plasmid expression system. A polymeric gene delivery system was developed to deliver the soluble RAE-1 plasmid to the pancreatic islets. The bioreducible cationic polymer poly(cystamine bisacrylamide‐diamino hexane) (p(CBA-DAH)) was modified with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and the targeting peptide CHVLWSTRC, known to target the EphA2 and EphA4 receptors. We observed a higher uptake of the targeting polymer Eph-PEG-p(CBA-DAH) in the pancreas of NOD mice compared to non-targeting controls. To evaluate the efficacy of preventing diabetes, the Eph-PEG-p(CBA-DAH)/RAE-1 complex (polyplex) was intravenously injected into 6-week-old female NOD mice. Within 17weeks blood glucose levels were stabilized in animals injected with polyplex, while those treated without therapeutic plasmid developed progressive hyperglycemia. Additionally, the degree of insulitis and the infiltration of CD8⁺ T-cells in the polyplex treated group were improved over the targeting polymer only treated group. The current study suggests that the therapy of the Eph-PEG-p (CBA-DAH) delivering therapeutic sRAE-1 gene may be used to protect β-cells from autoimmune destruction and prevent type-1 diabetes.”

    January 1970
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  • Wael R. Abd-Elgaliel

    Pancreatic cancer-associated Cathepsin E as a drug activator

    “Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is challenging to treat, and better means to detect and/or treat pancreatic cancer are urgently needed to save lives. Cathepsin E (Cath E) is a proteolytic enzyme highly expressed in PDAC. In this study, a novel approach using Cath E activation of a Cath E-specific prodrug was demonstrated. Specific activation of the prodrug is expected to kill pancreatic cancer cells without harming normal pancreatic cells. A novel 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) prodrug was custom-designed to be activated selectively by endogenous Cath E within the PDAC cells. The 5-ALA prodrug was incubated with Cath E-positive and -negative tumor cells and illuminated with various doses of light. In addition, mice genetically engineered to develop PDAC were injected intravenously with the 5-ALA prodrug, and the pancreas was treated with light irradiation. One day after treatment, PDAC tissue was assessed for apoptosis. The 5-ALA prodrug was activated within the Cath E-positive tumor but not in the normal pancreatic tissue. When used in combination with light treatment, it allowed delivery of selective photodynamic therapy (PDT) to the cancerous tissues, with minimal harm to the adjacent normal tissues. With this novel Cath E activation approach, it is possible to detect pancreatic cancer cells accurately and specifically impair their viability, while sparing normal cells. This treatment could result in fewer side effects than the non-specific treatments currently in use. Cath E is a specific and effective drug activator for PDAC treatment.”

    January 1970
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  • Masahiro Ohgidani

    Block/homo polyplex micelle-based GM-CSF gene therapy via intraperitoneal administration elicits antitumor immunity against peritoneal dissemination and exhibits safety potentials in mice and cynomolgus monkeys

    “A block/homo-mixed polyplex micelle, comprising of cationic homo polymer: poly{N′-[N-(2-aminoethyl)-2-aminoethyl]aspartamide} P[Asp(DET)] and block copolymer: polyethylene glycol (PEG)-b-P[Asp(DET)], has been reported to exhibit the efficient transgene expression in vivo by intratracheal and systemic administration. In the present study, we investigated the potential of immunogene therapy by intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of block/homo polyplex micelles for peritoneal dissemination. For evaluation of transgene expression in vivo, block/homo polyplex micelles showed 12-fold higher level in luciferase expression evaluated by bioluminescence imaging system at 24h after the i.p. administration compared with block polyplex micelles composed with only PEG-b-P[Asp(DET)] in nude mice bearing peritoneal dissemination. The distribution of block/homo polyplex micelles and intracellular uptake of pDNA was observed in tumor nodules. The tumor growth and the prolonged survival rate for the mice harboring disseminated pancreatic cancer more significantly compared with the mock. The antitumor effect of GM-CSF gene therapy was mediated via the activation of natural killer cells. For safety evaluation, block/homo polyplex micelles indicated almost no adverse events for patho-physical findings and blood examinations in mice and cynomolgus monkeys, although slight increases in serum fibrinogen were observed in the monkey model. In conclusion, block/homo polyplex micelle-based immunogene therapy via i.p. administration may be a safe and effective approach for suppressing intractable peritoneal dissemination.”

    January 1970
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  • Denise A. Yardley

    nab-Paclitaxel mechanisms of action and delivery

    “Taxanes are a key chemotherapy component for several malignancies, including metastatic breast cancer (MBC), ovarian cancer, and advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Despite the clinical benefit achieved with solvent-based (sb) taxanes, these agents can be associated with significant and severe toxicities. Albumin-bound paclitaxel (Abraxane; nab®-Paclitaxel), a novel solvent-free taxane, has demonstrated higher response rates and improved tolerability when compared with solvent-based formulations in patients with advanced MBC and NSCLC. The technology used to create nab-paclitaxel utilizes albumin to deliver paclitaxel, resulting in an advantageous pharmacokinetic (PK) profile. This review discusses the proposed mechanism of delivery of nab-paclitaxel, including an examination into a hypothesized greater ability to leverage albumin-based transport relative to sb-paclitaxel. An advantageous PK profile and the more efficient use of albumin-based transport may contribute to the preclinical finding that nab-paclitaxel achieves a 33% higher tumor uptake relative to sb-paclitaxel. Another possible contributing factor to the tumor accumulation of nab-paclitaxel is the binding of albumin to secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC), although the data supporting this relationship between SPARC and nab-paclitaxel remain largely correlative at this point. Recent data also suggest that nab-paclitaxel may enhance tumor accumulation of gemcitabine in pancreatic cancer treated with both agents. Additionally, a possible mechanistic synergy between nab-paclitaxel and capecitabine has been cited as the rationale to combine the two agents for MBC treatment. Thus, nab-paclitaxel appears to interact with tumors in a number of interesting, but not fully understood, ways. Continued preclinical and clinical research across a range of tumor types is warranted to answer the questions that remain on the mechanisms of delivery and antitumor activity of nab-paclitaxel.”

    January 1970
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  • Max Tsai

    Paclitaxel-loaded polymeric microparticles: Quantitative relationships between in vitro drug release rate and in vivo pharmacodynamics

    “Intraperitoneal therapy (IP) has demonstrated survival advantages in patients with peritoneal cancers, but has not become a widely practiced standard-of-care in part due to local toxicity and sub-optimal drug delivery. Paclitaxel-loaded, polymeric microparticles were developed to overcome these limitations. The present study evaluated the effects of microparticle properties on paclitaxel release (extent and rate) and in vivo pharmacodynamics. In vitro paclitaxel release from microparticles with varying physical characteristics (i.e., particle size, copolymer viscosity and composition) was evaluated. A method was developed to simulate the dosing rate and cumulative dose released in the peritoneal cavity based on the in vitro release data. The relationship between the simulated drug delivery and treatment outcomes of seven microparticle compositions was studied in mice bearing IP human pancreatic tumors, and compared to that of the intravenous Cremophor micellar paclitaxel solution used off-label in previous IP studies. Paclitaxel release from polymeric microparticles in vitro was multi-phasic; release was greater and more rapid from microparticles with lower polymer viscosities and smaller diameters (e.g., viscosity of 0.17 vs. 0.67dl/g and diameter of 5–6 vs. 50–60μm). The simulated drug release in the peritoneal cavity linearly correlated with treatment efficacy in mice (r²>0.8, p<0.001). The smaller microparticles, which distribute more evenly in the peritoneal cavity compared to the large microparticles, showed greater dose efficiency. For single treatment, the microparticles demonstrated up to 2-times longer survival extension and 4-times higher dose efficiency, relative to the paclitaxel/Cremophor micellar solution. Upon repeated dosing, the paclitaxel/Cremophor micellar solution showed cumulative toxicity whereas the microparticle that yielded 2-times longer survival did not display cumulative toxicity. The efficacy of IP therapy depended on both temporal and spatial factors that were determined by the characteristics of the drug delivery system. A combination of fast- and slow-releasing microparticles with 5–6μm diameter provided favorable spatial distribution and optimal drug release for IP therapy.”

    January 1970
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  • Hae Song Jung

    Hypoxic resistance of hypodermically transplanted pancreatic islets by using cell-absorbable antioxidant Tat-metallothionein

    “Subcutaneous site is ideal for clinical islet transplantation because it has the advantage of simple operation procedure under local anesthesia and can be biopsied when needed. However, the transplantation outcomes at subcutaneous site have been disappointing due to hypoxia-induced oxidative stress by poor vascularization. We hypothesized that subcutaneously transplanted islets would have hypoxia resistance by using internalization of metallothionein (MT), an antioxidant scavenging enzyme, which was mediated by fusion between MT and cell penetrating Tat peptide. The Tat-MT was dose-dependently transduced into islets without any damage. Tat-MT-treated islets could be protected from oxidative stress induced by intracellular nitric oxide donor, sodium nitroprusside (SNP). When Tat-MT-treated islets were subcutaneously transplanted into diabetic nude mice, they normally controlled the blood glucose levels without severe fluctuation (median survival time (MST): >30days), whereas most untreated islets were rejected (MST 17days). From the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test 5days after posttransplantation, glucose responsiveness of Tat-MT-treated islets was similar to that of normal healthy mice, while untreated islets had delayed glucose responsiveness. From the results of immunohistochemical stain, Tat-MT-treated islets had strong anti-insulin positive cells and lower anti-HIF-1α positive cells. However, untreated islets had rare anti-insulin positive cells and strong anti-HIF-1α-positive cells. Collectively, these findings demonstrated that Tat-MT delivery into islet could offer a new strategy for successful islet transplantation under subcutaneous space.”

    January 1970
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  • Debora R. Sekiguchi

    Analysis of B cell subsets following pancreatic islet cell transplantation in a patient with type 1 diabetes by cytometric fingerprinting

    “Manual gating of bivariate plots remains the most frequently used data analysis method in flow cytometry. However, gating is operator-dependent and cumbersome, particularly with the increasing complexity of modern multicolor immunophenotyping data. A method that can remove operator bias, enable systematic and thorough analysis of complex high-dimensional data, correlate temporal changes in different subsets and lead to biomarker discovery is needed. Here we apply such a method, called cytometric fingerprinting (CF), to data obtained on peripheral blood B cells from an adult patient with type-1 diabetes who underwent pancreatic islet transplantation. We establish that CF can be used to analyze longitudinal trends in immunophenotypic data, and show that results from CF are comparable to those obtained with traditional gating methods. Both methods reveal the appearance of transitional B cells and subsequent accumulation of more mature B cells following immunosuppression and transplantation. This pattern is consistent with a temporally ordered process of B cell auto-reconstitution. We also show the comparative efficiency of fingerprinting in recognizing relative changes in B cell subsets with respect to time, its ability to couple the data with statistical methods (agglomerative clustering) and its potential to define novel subsets.”

    January 1970
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  • Joao A. Paulo

    Cytokine profiling of pancreatic fluid using the ePFT collection method in tandem with a multiplexed microarray assay

    “Cytokines are secreted immunomodulating proteins involved in pancreatic stellate cell activation and propagation of fibrosis in chronic pancreatitis. We aim to show that cytokines can be identified from pancreatic fluid by (1) collecting pancreatic fluid with the ePFT method, (2) processing the fluid for cytokine-targeted microarray analysis, and (3) comparing cytokine profiles in pancreatic fluid of chronic pancreatitis (CP) patients and of chronic abdominal pain (CAP) controls. We endoscopically collected pancreatic fluid from patients with CP and those with CAP using the ePFT method. This fluid was subjected directly to a multiplexed cytokine protein microarray assay. Six patients (3 CP, 3 CAP) underwent a secretin-stimulated ePFT. The mean peak bicarbonate concentrations [meq/L] of the CP and CAP patients were 43 and 97, respectively. Statistically significant decreases in the cytokine concentrations of EGF, IP-10, eotaxin, IL-3, MIP-1a, IL-15, PDGF-AB/BB, and IL-1a were observed in the CP specimens (p<0.05). We have successfully identified differences in the abundance of cytokines in ePFT-collected pancreatic fluid with a multiplexed microarray assay comparing CP and CAP controls. Further targeted investigation of cytokines in ePFT-collected fluid will broaden our knowledge of pancreatic immune response and pathogenesis in chronic pancreatitis.”

    January 1970
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  • Linda S. Lee

    Inflammatory protein profiling of pancreatic cyst fluid using EUS-FNA in tandem with cytokine microarray differentiates between branch duct IPMN and inflammatory cysts

    “BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of pancreatic cystic neoplasms remains problematic. We hypothesize that inflammatory mediator proteins in pancreatic cyst fluid can differentiate branch duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (BD-IPMNs) and pancreatic inflammatory cysts. We aim to 1) detect inflammatory mediator proteins (IMPs) using a multiplexed IMP-targeted microarray in pancreatic cyst fluid obtained during endoscopic ultrasound fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) and 2) compare IMP profiles in pancreatic cyst fluid from BD-IPMNs and inflammatory cysts. Pancreatic cyst fluid from ten patients (5 BD-IPMN and 5 inflammatory cysts) was obtained by EUS-FNA and analyzed directly with a multiplexed microarray assay to determine concentrations of 89 IMPs. Statistical analysis was performed using non-parametric methods. RESULTS: Eighty-three of the 89 assayed IMPs were detected in at least one of the 10 patient samples. Seven IMPs were detected in BD-IPMN but not inflammatory cysts, while eleven IMPs were identified in inflammatory cysts but not BD-IPMN. Notably, granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) expression was present in all five inflammatory cyst samples. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) was present in significantly higher concentrations in inflammatory cysts compared to BD-IPMN. CONCLUSION: Our exploratory analysis reveals that GM-CSF and HGF in EUS-FNA-collected pancreatic cyst fluid can distinguish between BD-IPMN and inflammatory cyst. Coupling microarray molecular techniques to EUS-FNA may represent a major step forward to our understanding complex pancreatic disease.”

    January 1970
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  • Yoshitaka Sayo

    Transforming growth factor β induction of insulin gene expression is mediated by pancreatic and duodenal homeobox gene‐1 in rat insulinoma cells

    “Although transforming growth factor‐beta (TGF‐β) stimulates pancreatic islet cells to synthesize and secret insulin, the mechanism underlying this effect is not known. To investigate this question, we examined the insulin promoter activity focusing on a transcription factor, pancreatic and duodenal homeobox gene‐1 (PDX‐1) that binds to the A3 element of the rat insulin promoter. Studies performed using the rat insulinoma cell line, INS‐1 showed that TGF‐β stimulation of endogenous insulin mRNA expression correlated with increased activity of a reporter construct containing the insulin promoter. A potential mechanism for this increase arose from, electrophoretic mobility shift assay showing that the nuclear extract from TGF‐β treated cells contained higher levels of A3 binding activity. Western blot analysis confirmed that PDX‐1 was increased in the nuclear extract from INS‐1 cells treated with TGF‐β. As expected, a mutant insulin promoter that lacked the PDX‐1 binding site was not stimulated by TGF‐β. In summary, the results of these studies show that TGF‐β stimulates the transcription of insulin gene and this action is mediated by the transcription factor, PDX‐1.”

    January 1970
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